Closed Power Cycles: Thermodynamic Fundamentals and Applications offers an organized discussion about the strong interaction between working fluids, the thermodynamic behavior of the cycle using them and the technological design aspects of the machines. A precise treatment of thermal engines operating in accordance with closed cycles is provided to develop ideas and discussions strictly founded on the basic thermodynamic facts that control the closed cycles operation and design.
Including chapters on binary cycles, the organic Rankine cycle and real closed gas cycles, Closed Power Cycles: Thermodynamic Fundamentals and Applications acts a solid introduction and reference for post-graduate students and researchers working in applied thermodynamics and energy conversion with thermodynamic engines. He is author of several papers published mostly on international journals. The scientific activity up to now is mainly directed to the thermodynamic and technological aspects of non conventional power cycles, heat pumps and refrigerating cycles using organic working fluids, working fluids with strong real-gas effects and liquid metals.
Recirculating or indirect wet cooling
Energy Systems, Storage and Harvesting.
Lecture Notes in Energy Free Preview. Buy eBook. Finally for a closed system Shaft Work due to a paddle wheel and Electrical Work due to a voltage applied to an electrical resistor or motor driving a paddle wheel will always be negative work done on the system. Positive forms of shaft work, such as that due to a turbine, will be considered in Chapter 4 when we discuss open systems.
Closed Power Cycles
The third component of our Closed System Energy Equation is the change of internal energy resulting from the transfer of heat or work. Since specific internal energy is a property of the system, it is usually presented in the Property Tables such as in the Steam Tables. Consider for example the following solved problem.
Solved Problem 3. We wish to extend the problem to include the energy interactions of the process, hence we restate it as follows:. Determine the work done by the fluid W and heat transferred to the fluid Q during this process. We first draw the diagram of the process including all the relevant data as follows:. Notice the four questions to the right of the diagram, which we should always ask before attempting to solve any thermodynamic problem.
What are we dealing with - liquid? In this case it is steam, thus we will use the steam tables to determine the various properties at the various states. Is the mass or volume given?
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What about entropy? Not so fast - we have not yet considered enthalpy below - wait patiently until Chapter 6. Since work involves the integral of P. Notice on the P-v diagram how we determine the specific work done as the area under the process curve.
We also notice that in the Compressed Liquid region the constant temperature line is essentially vertical. In the case studies that follow we find that one of the major applications of the closed system energy equation is in heat engine processes in which the system is approximated by an ideal gas, thus we will develop relations to determine the internal energy for an ideal gas. We will find also that a new property called Enthalpy will be useful both for Closed Systems and in particular for Open Systems, such as the components of steam power plants or refrigeration systems.
Enthalpy is not a fundamental property, however is a combination of properties and is defined as follows:. As an example of its usage in closed systems, consider the following constant pressure process:. Applying the energy equation we obtain:.
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